Monday, December 29, 2014

Wondering, Pondering, and Theorizing with DNA

With DNA and genealogy research, I talk to myself all the time. No joke! I’d bet that I am not the only one! Wondering, pondering, and theorizing out loud is actually the nature of documental and genetic genealogy research. To wonder is to think about it. To ponder is to consider thoroughly and deeply. Then, to theorize is to suggest scenarios or situations about what is possibly true or real. Talk it all out. Then, write it down! This helps one to map out a research plan in order to find the answers to pertinent questions that surface based on the information at hand or based on an interesting DNA match.

With that said, this blog post is threefold. First, I want to demonstrate this wondering, pondering, and theorizing using the case of a recent DNA match, as I work my way towards figuring out the family connection. Since I often talk with my fingers, I am talking it out in the writing of this blog post. Secondly, I want to stress the importance of utilizing GEDmatch. Thirdly, I want to put this research out there in hopes that it may lead to a major clue from someone who recognizes the families in question.

Ms. Cargill is a "Very High" DNA match to me in AncestryDNA. She has been in my list of matches since I’ve been on AncestryDNA, and I have wondered how she is related to me. The predicted relationship is 4th cousins. According to AncestryDNA, a confidence score of “Very High” means that Ms. Cargill and I share approximately 20 to 30 cM (centiMorgans) of DNA. AncestryDNA further assesses that there’s a 99% chance that my match and I share a single recent common ancestor within 5 or 6 generations. Thankfully, Ms. Cargill has a family tree that’s viewable to the public. Therefore, the wondering, pondering, and theorizing began. I ponder my DNA matches further by asking myself the right questions.

Q1: Do we have any common surnames in our families?

I looked at her family tree and recognized one common surname: MILLER. My father has Miller ancestors from Warren County, Mississippi. However, her Millers were from Arkansas, and her oldest-traced Miller ancestor, her great-grandfather Joseph Miller, was born in Tennessee around 1829. My father’s oldest-traced Miller ancestor is his great-great-grandfather, Fredrick Miller, who was born around 1827 in Mississippi, according to the censuses. However, the 1900 census-taker reported Virginia as the birthplace of Fredrick Miller’s parents. The differences in our ancestors’ locations do not mean that our Millers aren’t related. Many enslaved African Americans had family members that were taken or sold to other states. However, we lacked more information to connect our Millers.

Q2: Did she have ancestors who lived in the same area as my ancestors during and after slavery?

I viewed Ms. Cargill’s family tree thoroughly and determined that the answer to that question was NO. Since AncestryDNA does not provide any analysis tools, I couldn’t compare her to known relatives in order to narrow down how we may be related. At this point, I could only speculate that maybe the connection is on my father’s side and through our Millers.

Q3: What about GEDmatch?

More in-depth research is required to try to connect the dots. Also, since AncestryDNA lacks analysis tools, maybe we can turn to GEDmatch for possible answers. GEDmatch is a free, third-party DNA utility site that helps to find the family connection between people who have uploaded their autosomal DNA raw data file from 23andMe, AncestryDNA, or Family Tree DNA's Family Finder. Think of GEDmatch as “DNA Central” – the central location where DNA testers from 23andMe, AncestryDNA, or FTDNA's Family Finder can upload and compare DNA data. Therefore, in GEDmatch, one will gain many more DNA matches and have many analysis tools that allow people to compare, analyze, and determine how someone may be related and their ancestral backgrounds. GEDmatch is highly recommended (see

Thankfully, Ms. Cargill had uploaded her AncestryDNA raw data file to GEDmatch. I was able to do a “One-to-One” comparison and determined that she shares 20.6 cM with me. Since I have also uploaded both of my parents’ data files to GEDmatch, I was also able to determine that Ms. Cargill matches my mother and not my father. Therefore, our Millers aren’t related. She shares 20.7 cM with my mother with a MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor) of 4.7 generations back. Therefore, the connection goes back to slavery.

GEDmatch’s analysis tools as of 12/29/2014

Q4: What else can we do to help us figure out this connection?

Utilizing the DNA triangulation feature in GEDmatch, I decided to compare Ms. Cargill to other known relatives on my mother’s side in order to determine if the connection is on Mom’s mother’s side or Mom’s father’s side. Unfortunately, Ms. Cargill did not match them.

Ms. Cargill also asked herself the same question. Her parents are deceased. But as a substitute, she decided to test her father’s brother to garner more clues about her paternal side and to assist with DNA analysis. However, since her father and her uncle were half-brothers who shared the same father, any mutual DNA matches between her and her uncle would be related via her paternal grandfather, Roland Miller (1875-1940) of Augusta, Arkansas. Interestingly, testing a parent’s half-sibling can provide greater specificity since it narrows the family connection down to one grandparent.

Lo and behold, her uncle matched Mom!  According to GEDmatch, they share a whopping 81 cM over 2 segments with a MRCA of 3.7 generations back. Her uncle also shares 89 cM over 2 segments with Mom's sister. Therefore, GEDmatch is estimating that her uncle and my mother and aunt probably share the same great-great-grandparents, i.e., 3rd cousins. This is close kin, in my opinion!

Q5: Who were Roland Miller’s parents, grandparents, etc. and where were they from?

Ms. Cargill has only been able to trace back to her grandfather Roland's parents. They were Joseph Miller (born c. 1829) and Sarah Roddy (born c. 1843). Both had been enslaved near Augusta, Arkansas and remained in the area after slavery. The family connection is via Joseph or Sarah.

Q6: What can I garner from the censuses?

According to the 1870 and 1880 Woodruff County, Arkansas censuses, Joseph Miller was born in Tennessee and Sarah Roddy Miller was born in Arkansas. According to the 1880 census, Joseph and Sarah’s parents were born in Tennessee. Therefore, for both Joseph and Sarah, there was a forced family migration from Tennessee to Arkansas. Of noteworthiness, the same migration pattern existed for other black Miller and Roddy families that lived nearby. Presently, Ms. Cargill does not know the names of her great-great-grandparents.

Q7: Where is the Tennessee connection in my mother’s family?

My only known, Tennessee-born maternal ancestor was my mother’s great-great-grandmother, Peggy Warren Milam. After years of research, I was finally able to determine that she was born in Williamson County, Tennessee around 1829. Grandma Peggy, her parents, and siblings were enslaved by Edward Warren, who transported them to Marshall County, Mississippi during the 1830s. Grandma Peggy was eventually sold to Joseph R. Milam of present-day Tate County, Mississippi. I recently determined that Grandma Peggy had a sister who was sold to Ed Warren’s son-in-law, Erasmus J. Ellis; he took her to Ouachita County, Arkansas around 1858. For further details about that discovery, which was revealed from a close DNA match, read DNA Does It Again – Another Long Lost Sibling Found!.  

Q8: Who were Joseph and Sarah Miller’s last enslavers, and are there any obvious links to Edward Warren or Erasmus J. Ellis?

After researching the 1850 and 1860 Jackson County, Arkansas Slave Schedules, the 1830 – 1870 censuses, and searching through, as well as finding an informative online source, I was able to tie both Joseph & Sarah Miller to the Alexander & Agnes Roddy Family of Jackson County, Arkansas. (Note: Woodruff County was created from Jackson County in 1861.) Six key facts about the white Roddy family included the following:

     (1)   Alexander and Agnes Roddy were from Spartanburg County, South Carolina. They had 7 sons and 1 daughter named Rose.
     (2)   Their daughter Rose Roddy married John MILLER in 1807 in Spartanburg County, and the Millers subsequently had seven children.
     (3)   The Roddy and Miller families both moved to Tipton County, Tennessee by 1825. The Roddys and Millers were reported in the 1830 Tipton County, TN Census.
     (4)   By 1835, the Roddy and Miller families both moved to Jackson County, Arkansas and established a plantation called Walnut Woods near Augusta, Arkansas.
     (5)   Alexander Roddy died in Jackson County, Arkansas in 1840 at the age of 81. According to the 1840 census, two sons, Elias and John Roddy, owned 25 slaves, collectively.
     (6)  His daughter, Rose Roddy Miller, died in 1851. Per the 1850 Jackson County, Arkansas Slave Schedule, three of Rose’s sons, Wilson, James, and Henry Miller, were the only Miller slave-owners in the county, owning 24 slaves, collectively.

Although I haven’t been able to find any online Arkansas probate/estate records or wills for members of the Roddy and Miller families, chances are very high that people in this family were the last enslavers of Joseph & Sarah Miller and their parents. First, the migration pattern matches (TN>ARK). Secondly, the white Roddys and Millers lived in the same township as Joseph and Sarah, and other black Miller and Roddy families in 1870. Nonetheless, I could not find any ties between the white Millers and Roddys to Edward Warren and Erasmus J. Ellis.

Q9: Could the connection go back to South Carolina?

After learning that the white Roddy and Miller families had been living in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, I diverted my attention to my mother’s great-grandparents, Edward Danner (1832-1876) and Louisa “Lue” Bobo Danner (1842-1921). Both of them were born in Union County, South Carolina, which is adjacent to Spartanburg County. Their enslaver Dr. William J. Bobo took them to Panola County, Mississippi in 1858. Thomas Danner Jr., the previous enslaver of Grandpa Edward and his parents, and David Boyce, the previous enslaver of Grandma Lue’s mother and her family, as well as Dr. William Bobo, had all resided in the Cross Keys and Sedalia area of Union County. This area is less than 10 miles from the Union/Spartanburg County line.

Q10: Do Ms. Cargill and her uncle match my Mom’s 2nd cousin, too?

Fortunately, my mother has a second cousin, Orien, who has taken the AncestryDNA and the 23andMe DNA tests. Edward and Lue Danner are Cousin Orien’s great-grandparents, too.  Therefore, I asked Ms. Cargill to see if she matches her in AncestryDNA. She confirmed that both she and her uncle also match Cousin Orien! Major clue!

Q11: Is DNA triangulation possible?

Since Cousin Orien hasn’t uploaded her data to GEDmatch yet, I decided to see if all of the matches were on the same chromosome. Using the chromosome browser tool in GEDmatch, I was able to do some DNA triangulation between Mom, Ms. Cargill, and her uncle. As the following diagram shows, Mom matches Ms. Cargill and her uncle on overlapping segments on chromosome 17, from 7.2 to 39.2 Mbp (50.4 cM) with her uncle, and from 18.5 to 39.2 Mbp (20.7 cM) with Ms. Cargill. Mom also matches her uncle on chromosome 8 (30.5 cM).

Via 23andMe, Mom shares 324 cM across 17 segments with Cousin Orien. Utilizing the Family Inheritance Tool in 23andMe, I determined that Cousin Orien matches me and Mom on chromosome 17 from points 6.0 to 38.0 Mbp.  See diagram below. Since Ms. Cargill confirmed that she and her uncle match Cousin Orien in AncestryDNA, I am confident that they all will be matching in the same area on chromosome 17, indicating that they all descend from a common ancestor(s). 

UPDATE (12/31/2014): Cousin Orien has uploaded to GEDmatch. As anticipated, she indeed matches Ms. Cargill's uncle on chromosome 17 in the same region at 48.1 cM. She also matches him on chromosome 10 at 15.3 cM for a total of 63.5 cM.

Q12: What did this additional DNA triangulation conclude?

It confirms that there’s a close family relationship between Joseph Miller (born c. 1829 in TN) or Sarah Roddy (born c. 1843 in Ark.) and Grandpa Edward Danner (born c. 1832 in SC) or Grandma Louisa “Lue” Bobo Danner (born 1842 in SC). Perhaps two of them – Joseph and Grandpa Ed, Joseph and Grandma Lue, Sarah and Grandpa Ed, or Sarah and Grandma Lue – were first cousins who shared the same grandparents? If that’s the case, Mom and Ms. Cargill’s uncle would be 3rd cousins once removed who happen to share above-average DNA even for 3rd cousins. See DNA sharing chart here.

Q13: Can a closer look at the time frames and locations give more insight?

The answer to this question is YES, and hopefully this blog post demonstrated that. It helps to analyze where people were and when they resided in various locations. Mapping out time frames and locations can greatly assist in figuring out family connections.

Grandma Lue’s family is the foundation of my first book, Mississippi to Africa: A Journey of Discovery, which goes back to her mother Clarissa Bobo (born c. 1823), Clarissa’s parents, and three of Clarissa’s four grandparents. Grandma Lue’s father was white. Therefore, I am placing my bet that the connection is via Grandpa Edward Danner since I have never found any ties to the Miller/Roddy Family of Spartanburg County, SC in my Bobo/Boyce research. But you just never know sometimes!  Many unknowns remain prevalent, even within well-researched family lines. More genealogical research is necessary to solve this mystery. More DNA matches will greatly assist. However, asking the right questions out loud and researching to find the answers, in conjunction with DNA triangulations, enabled me to narrow it down to this point, which is good progress.

Stay tuned for updates to this DNA mystery. Hopefully!

Sunday, December 14, 2014

Why Many African Americans Should Do the Genetic DNA Testing

My great-great-grandparents, Hector Davis & Lucy Milam Davis of Panola County, Mississippi

Since I started researching my family history in 1993, I have seen the interest in genealogy leapfrog! Many African Americans are actively researching to document the history of their ancestors. An attest to this rapid growth can be witnessed by the large number of people who are members of Black genealogy groups on Facebook like Our Black Ancestry, which currently has over 20,000 subscribers, like AfriGeneas, which currently has over 6,000 subscribers, and like the African-American Genealogy Forum, which currently has over 3,000 subscribers. There are more, and they all are growing.

Reading the genealogical accomplishments in these groups often leaves me in awe! I am often fascinated by what many have uncovered about their ancestors. Contrary to those “impossibility declarations” that Dr. Henry Louis Gates makes on Finding Your Roots on PBS, a number of people have successfully traced their families back to the first African ancestor to touch American soil.  Although many researchers and I have traced back five or more generations, we are looking to autosomal DNA to take us further or to help us prove if certain people were our ancestors. The more people that get tested with 23andMe, AncestryDNA, or other DNA companies, the more that connections can be proven and more ancestors can be unearthed.

DNA technology is especially beneficial for documenting our enslaved ancestors. Slave ancestral research is not an easy task. However, finding and utilizing the right records and the correct methodologies for slave ancestral research, many people are able to trace back to enslaved ancestors who were born in the 1700s. DNA can and has assisted greatly in these quests. These documented histories are a great legacy to the generations after us. Therefore, one’s willingness to participate in genetic DNA testing not only helps the individual to understand his ancestral background, but it’s conducive to the many active researchers who desire to leave that great legacy.

For this blog post, I am presenting another case in which I really need DNA to help to confirm potential enslaved ancestors. The last enslaver of my great-great-great-grandparents, Wade Milam (born c. 1825 in AL) and Peggy Warren Milam (born c. 1829 in TN), was Joseph R. Milam of present-day Tate County, Mississippi. After years of research, I was finally able to figure out how Joseph acquired Grandma Peggy, since she was not from Alabama. A DNA match from Arkansas even helped to confirm Grandma Peggy’s family from whom she was separated! You can read it HERE. Joseph Milam was born in Madison County, Alabama in 1811. He, his wife, his parents, and most of his siblings moved to Marshall County, Mississippi around 1835. The censuses confirmed that they brought slaves with them. Only one brother, James W. Milam, remained in Alabama and settled in Talladega County. (Remember that.) Once they landed in Mississippi, Joseph Milam decided to go about 8 miles further west, into present-day Tate County, where he established his plantation on the Tate-Panola County line by 1840.  

Since Grandpa Wade Milam was also from Alabama, I theorized that perhaps the white Milams transported him to Mississippi. So I decided to place some focus on Joseph’s father, Jarvis Jackson Milam, just to see if I can find out anything about his origins. Thankfully, the Milam Family is a well-researched family, and I learned that Jarvis died on July 4, 1849 in Marshall County, Mississippi. To my fortune, has digitized Marshall County Probate Records for the time period 1839 to 1871. You can access them HERE. I fortunately found an inventory of Jarvis Milam’s estate, dated March 30, 1850, and it listed 26 enslaved people by name, age, and value.

The slave inventory of Jarvis Milam’s Estate, March 30, 1850
Marshall County, Mississippi

I didn’t expect Grandpa Wade to be a part of Jarvis’s estate because he was enslaved on Joseph Milam’s plantation by 1846. That’s the approximate year when his first-born, my great-great-grandmother Lucy Milam Davis (1846-1927), was born. However, “Little Spencer, age 11” on the inventory caught my attention. This was likely Spencer Milam, who lived right next door to my great-great-grandparents, Hector & Lucy Davis, in 1870. Spencer and his first wife, Huldah (Hector’s sister), married on the same day as Grandpa Hector and Grandma Lucy; both couples married on July 7, 1866. It appears that they traveled together to the courthouse to get married.  I immediately wondered and suspected that Spencer Milam was somehow related to Grandma Lucy. But was he?

Spencer & Huldah Milam lived adjacent to Hector & Lucy Davis in 1870, DeSoto (now Tate) Co., MS.
Joseph Milam’s widow, Eunice Milam, was next-door.
Grandma Lucy’s mother Peggy was two households above Eunice.

“Spencer, 50” and “Lucy, 45” on the slave inventory also caught my attention. Interestingly, sleuthing through the 1850 Marshall County slave schedule, I discovered that the three older males, Spencer, Anthony, and Abraham, were all reported as 52, rather than 50 that was reported on the slave inventory. Lucy was reported as 54, instead of 45 that was reported on the slave inventory. Like any researcher would likely ask, were Spencer and Lucy the parents of Grandpa Wade? Had Grandma Lucy Davis been named after her paternal grandmother? Also, many researchers would understandably theorize that “Little Spencer” was probably their son. But was he?

I decided to scroll through the Marshall County Probate Records images on to see if I will discover more on other pages. I am so glad that I did that! I am also happy that I checked to see if there were probate records on for Talladega County, Alabama. Again, I hit pay dirt! You will see why the Alabama records were important. The following three important documents were found:

ESTATE DOCUMENT 1: The following slaves were sold from Jarvis Milam’s estate, April 29, 1851. This document verified that Spencer and Lucy were husband and wife. “Spencer and wife Lucy” were acquired by Joseph R. Milam. “Little Spencer” and Ann were acquired by Jarvis’ son, Benjamin L. Milam.

ESTATE DOCUMENT 2: Jarvis’ widowed son, James W. Milam, died in Talladega County, Alabama in Nov. 1841. In another estate document, Jarvis was named the guardian of James’ only child, James Clayton Milam. Shortly after little orphaned James moved to Marshall County, Mississippi to live with his grandparents, he died at a young age in 1844. Little James’ estate record was also found, and it included his slave inheritance from his father. The inventory was made on April 19, 1844. I discovered that “Little Spencer” and “Little Ann,” who were inventoried in Jarvis’ 1850 estate, had come from Jarvis’ son James, who was in Alabama! Therefore, “Little Spencer” was NOT the son of Spencer and Lucy.

James Clayton Milam’s Estate, April 19, 1844, Marshall County, Mississippi
Mariah and four children, Ann, Spencer, Amanda, Anderson
Lizzy and three children, Amelia, Fanny, Hampton
Riah and two children, Alfred, Edmund

ESTATE DOCUMENT 3: After finding document 2, I was also fortunate to discover that some of Talladega County, Alabama probate records had been digitized and uploaded to I found James W. Milam’s will that he wrote on November 1, 1841. This will named the same slaves, and James desired for his father Jarvis to take them to Mississippi. See the following:

“Second. I give and devise and bequeath to my son  James Clayton Milam three Negro women and there children viz Mariah and three children, Ariah & two children, also Liz a yellow girl & two children, the above named Negroes I wish removed by my father Jarvis Milam to the state of Mississippi. Third, a Negro man Stephen and a woman named Sylvia with all my personal and real estate I wish sold on a credit of 12 months….”

If I had not found those estate documents, I would have continually theorized that “Little Spencer” (Spencer Milam) may have been Spencer and Lucy’s son. Now, I am asking the following questions: (1) Was Spencer Milam’s mother, Mariah, a daughter of Spencer and Lucy who Jarvis had given or sold to his son, James W.? I feel that it is more than coincidental that there’s an Elder Spencer and a child Spencer. (2) Again, was Grandpa Wade also a child of Elder Spencer and Lucy? (3) Were Mariah and Grandpa Wade siblings? If so, Spencer Milam in 1870 and Grandma Lucy were first cousins.

DNA would certainly help to determine if there’s a connection to Jarvis Milam’s slaves. I am in contact with a great-grandson of Spencer Milam and his second wife, Mollie. Some years ago, one of my elderly relatives (a granddaughter of Hector & Lucy Davis) stated that she thinks that Spencer and his family were a “different set” and weren’t related to Grandma Lucy. However, Spencer Milam’s great-grandson, who was born and raised in the area, knew my Davis Family as being his cousins, according to his family elders. Therefore, we are confused.

Spencer Milam’s great-grandson also took the 23andMe DNA test recently. He did not match me and my mother. Speculating that Mariah, his great-great-grandmother, may have been a sister of Grandpa Wade Milam, Mom’s great-great-grandfather, that theory would make them as possibly being 4th cousins. With 4th cousins, there's only a 45% chance that DNA will detect a kinship. This link explains the probabilities. Therefore, because of the higher probability of a non-match (55%), I am not ready to conclude that Grandpa Wade was not related to Mariah, Little Spencer, Elder Spencer and Lucy. Also, while he doesn't match my mother, he may match other family members. I am awaiting my aunt's 23andMe DNA results to see if he matches her. My mother and her sister likely inherited different chromosome segments from the same common ancestors. That's the nature of DNA transmission.

I found a number of those enslaved by Jarvis Milam in the 1870 and 1880 Marshall County censuses, including Dudley (who was also born in AL) and his family. They retained the Milam surname. To add, Jarvis Milam’s will, which can be read here on FamilySearch, identified Ann, who was the first slave on his 1850 inventory, as Dudley’s wife. The enslaved children inventoried after her and before Dudley were their children. Were Dudley, James, and Morgan Milam, who were all born in Alabama too, the sons of Elder Spencer and Lucy? Were they Grandpa Wade Milam’s brothers? Were they Mariah’s brothers, too? There were and are many black Milam descendants in Marshall County, Mississippi and elsewhere. It would be wonderful if some of them took the 23andMe DNA test (or others) to help determine if Elder Spencer and Lucy were our direct ancestors and my 4th-great-grandparents. I will maintain hope!

DNA Note: If you decide to take the AncestryDNA test, I highly recommend that after you get your results, please upload your raw data file to GEDmatch. See GEDmatch is a great online DNA program that allows you to further analyze your DNA results with their great analysis tools. It is also free. AncestryDNA does not offer any analysis tools. GEDmatch's analysis tools are essential if you desire to compare people in your relative list to figure out ancestral connections, which is known as DNA triangulation. The meaning of DNA triangulation is further explained HERE. 23andMe offers great analysis tools as well. However, I would also recommend that 23andMe users (and others) upload to GEDmatch as well. You will gain more matches in GEDmatch. 

Research Note: To date, I have been unable to find any court records showing Jarvis Milam deeding slaves to his children before they left Madison County, Alabama or after they arrived in Marshall County, Mississippi.

Sunday, December 7, 2014

Am I Seeing Double?



John Bass of Northampton County, North Carolina wrote out his will on June 14, 1777. He left 19 slaves to his children and grandchildren (Northampton Co. Will Book 1, p. 292). Let’s take a look at the names of those 19 enslaved people.

  To son Jacob Bass à one negro girl, BECK
  To son Isaac Bass à two negro women, Rose and Moll
  To grandson John Bass à one negro girl, Fanny
  To son Abraham Bass à one negro girl, Phillis
  To grandson Job Bass à one negro girl, Queen
  To grandson Council Bass à negro fellow SHARPER and negro boy Scotland
  To grandson Uriah Bass à one negro woman Hannah and negro boy Ben
  To daughter Alice Earp à one negro woman Peg and one negro boy Pompey
  To daughter Euridice Council à one negro woman, Dinah
  To grandson Jesse Bittle à one negro girl, Jane
  To granddaughter Winnifred Bittle à one negro boy, Davy
  To grandson John Bittle à one negro girl, Patt
  To granddaughter Margaret Bittle à one negro girl, Rachel
  To grandson Drury Bittle à one negro boy, Isham
  To daughter Elizabeth Bittle à one negro woman, Judith

Let’s jump back 9 years to 1768. There’s a Northampton Co., N.C. deed, dated Dec. 1, 1768, in which John Bass gives to his "well-esteemed friend," Margaret Murfree, widow, one negro boy Cesar and a negro girl Nan after his death (Northampton Co. Deed Book 4, p. 851).

An ongoing project has been tracking down these 21 enslaved people through wills, estate and probate records, deeds, and other records. You will see why I have taken an interest in the destiny of these 21 enslaved people. However, in this blog post, I will only show the path of BECK, who was willed to son Jacob Bass, and SHARPER, who was willed to Council Bass. You will really be cross-eyed if I presented others. lol


I learned that Jacob Bass died in 1794 in Franklin County, North Carolina. Fortunately, his estate file was found on (North Carolina Estate Files, 1663-1979, Franklin County, Account Sales of the Negroes of Jacob Bass). BECK was still living, now an adult woman in 1794, and was listed in the inventory. She was the only adult slave and the rest were “boys” and “girls”; some of them or all of them may have been Beck’s children. Do you see any repetitive names?

  One boy, Synaker
  One negro boy, Cesar
  One wench, BECK and child
  One girl, Patt
  One girl, Rose
  One boy, Adam
  One girl, Lucy  
  One girl, Cherry


Now, let’s jump ahead by 36 years. John Bass’ grandson, Council Bass, died in 1830 in Northampton County, North Carolina. SHARPER, the “negro fellow” Council had inherited from his grandfather in 1777, was among the 20 slaves he named in his will (North Carolina Estate Files, 1663-1979, Northampton County). My great-great-great-grandmother, Beady Bass, was also among the 20 enslaved people. Council made the following bequeaths on Sept. 4, 1830:

To daughter Martha Bass Mayo à Mima, Archie, Nancy, Alfred, Isaac, Goodson
To daughter Elizabeth Bass à Harry, Beady, Hezekiah, Jackson, Willie and three old Negroes, SHARPER, Rose, and Peggy
To granddaughter Susan Ann Crisp Staton à Zina, Mary Jane, Andrew
To granddaughter Eliza Coggins Hatcher à Senica
To daughter Charlotte Bass Holloman à negroe girls, Barsilla and Brittania

Look again at the 1777 and 1794 groups. Are you seeing double with some of the names?

Martha Mayo’s group were Mima (Jemima) and her children. Martha Mayo and her husband Frederick Mayo moved to Madison County, Tennessee after 1830. Madison County probate records revealed that Jemima had additional children after 1830 named Rose, Silvesta, Harry, Beady, Mary, and Willis. Jemima was reported as 61 years old in 1858, so she was born around 1797. Therefore, she was about 33 years old in 1830.

Look again at the 1830 group. Are you seeing double again?

Elizabeth Bass’ group, which included Grandma Beady and her children, were taken to Hinds County, Mississippi in 1849. Elizabeth and her husband/cousin Jesse Bass, Jr. had relocated to Mississippi. The following are verified names of six of Grandma Beady’s children: Eliza, Jemima, Hetty, Peggy, Jackson (my great-great-grandfather Jack Bass, born c. 1845), and Oscar.

Look again at the 1830 group. Are you still seeing double?

In the 1830 group, naming patterns, DNA, and census findings suggest that Mima, Harry, Beady, Seneca, and Jackson were siblings. According to Gedmatch, my father shares 18 cM of DNA with my cousin Janice, a great-great-great-granddaughter of Jemima (Mima) via her son, Archie. Archie Mayo’s granddaughter, Rosa Mayo Burton (1891-1956), was Janice’s paternal grandmother. I underlined her grandmother’s name for the obvious reason. lol

The 1830 census was taken shortly before Council Bass wrote his will. He was enumerated with 20 slaves, the same number of slaves he named in his will. Therefore, I decided to use the 1830 census to see what age range were the “three old Negroes, SHARPER, Rose, and Peggy.” The three oldest were in the following age range:

     One Male – 55 to 99: SHARPER
     One Female – 55 to 99: Peggy or Rose
     One Female – 36 to 54: Peggy or Rose

Now, let’s do a little math. In 1777, SHARPER was considered a “negro fellow,” which means that he was likely a young adult male, probably in his 20s. So let’s guesstimate that Sharper was around 21 years old in 1777. Fifty-three (53) years later, Sharper is named in Council Bass’ will and estate records. 21 + 53 = 74. Therefore, Sharper may have been around 74, give or take a few years, in 1830.

Grandma Beady Bass named one of her daughters Peggy. Her sister, Aunt Jemima “Mima” Mayo, named on her daughters Rose. In 1830, two of the “three old Negroes” were two women, Rose and Peggy. One was between 55 and 99, and the other was between 36 and 54. Was one of them their mother? Was the other their grandmother? Hmmmm…..

To add to the mystery, there’s a “Negro woman” named Rose and a “Negro woman” named Peg in the 1777 group. Grandma Beady Bass’ bloodline seems to definitely flow back to that 1777 group that John Bass “owned.” Interestingly, John Bass was born around 1700 in Norfolk County, Virginia. He, his parents, and siblings had moved to the Urahaw Swamp area of Bertie County (now part of Northampton County), North Carolina by 1722. Historian Paul Heinegg noted that John Bass was a slave-owner by Aug. 1742, when he proved rights on five “Whites” and three “Blacks” in Northampton County, North Carolina (Source). Was one of them the start of Grandma Beady’s bloodline in America? Hmmmm….

A lot more research to do…… (Suggestions, thoughts, and ideas are always welcomed.)