Sunday, February 19, 2017

My “Kunta Kinte”: Part 2 of “The Search for Our African Ancestor’s Birthplace”

 
Map of Nigeria (Source: Africa World News)

On February 1, I posted The Search for Our African Ancestor’s Birthplace.” That blog post contains a video of Samuel Siaw of Cape Coast, Ghana giving us some great insight concerning my mother’s great great grandfather Luke Edwards’ African name – OGBAR OGUMBA. He immediately linked the name to the Igbo people of Nigeria, instead of Ghana. Please check out that post to understand the context of this discovery.

Naja Chinyere Njoku, the founder and moderator of the DNA Tested African Descendants Facebook groups, read my blog post and immediately contacted a Nigerian chief (Igbo) for more information about my ancestor’s African name. Chief Okorie Mba (Eze Amufi) of Asaga Ohafia, Nigeria (Abia State) was very familiar with the name! He relayed the following information:

There are two meanings of the name, (1) As a place, it means town or village, (2) the name Mba means the braggart, big mouth, admonisher, showoff, backer or bouncer of the family.... or a fighter. Ogu Mba means righteousness of a town. Ogba as a name is rampant in my village. It is a short cut to the name Ogbanta, which used to be an honorary name given to a great hunter.

For example:
Ogba Anu means animal shooter.
Ogba Agu means lion shooter.
Ogbu Agu means lion killer.
Ogba (r) means shooter.
Ogbu (h) means killer.

The correct name should be Ogba as in Mba. The (r) and (h) were added by colonial masters for easier pronunciation. Please note that the O will have a dot under.

While recording the oral history from family elders in the 1970s in Panola County (Como), Mississippi, the late Cousin Rev. Sidney Edwards also wrote the following about Grandpa Luke (Ogbar Ogumba), “He had a high pitched voice and never let up during a conversation." Compare this piece of oral history to the meaning of the name from Chief Okorie Mba that is highlighted in red above. Yes, I am astounded. This appears to be more than coincidental to me!

To date, this is by far the most compelling piece of linguistic evidence we have gotten. To add, nearly all of the males with the surname OGUMBA on Facebook are from Nigeria. We are getting closer!

Combined snapshots from the 1855 slave inventory of William Edwards’ estate, Panola County, Mississippi, taken on December 15, 1855. At the end of the inventory, placed at the top of this image, Luke Sr. (Ogbar Ogumba) was inventoried with a value of $150. At the top of the inventory, there’s another Luke, who was Luke Edwards, Jr., born around 1815. Luke Edwards, Jr. died after 1900 in Panola County, Mississippi. Prince Edwards (born c. 1830) was my mother’s great grandfather.

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

The Search For Our African Ancestor’s Birthplace

I am posting this blog post and the short video clip below on the first day of Black History Month 2017, to emphasize that our Black history did not begin with American chattel slavery.

About six years ago, my cousin Dr. Jeffrey Ogbar and I discussed our family connection via my maternal grandmother. During the phone conversation, he told me how his Edwards family knew the name of their "Kunta Kinte." In the 1970s, down in Panola County (Como), Mississippi, his great-uncle, the late Rev. Sidney Edwards, interviewed family elders. They shared with him how the first Edwards was a man named Luke Edwards, who was from Africa. Not only that, family elders had knowledge of his true African name that he told his family - OGBA(R) OGUMBA. I was fascinated to hear this! I was also "green with envy" because this was the type of family history that I longed to have. I remember saying to Cousin Jeff, "Wow! You all are so blessed to have this kind of family history. This is rare!"


The oral history that the late Rev. Sidney Edwards typed in the 1970s.
(Courtesy of Dr. Jeffrey Ogbar)

Fast forward four years later, in June 2015, I finally learned through autosomal DNA (with oral history clues left by family elders) that the father of my mother's paternal grandmother, Sarah Partee Reed (1852-1923) of Tate County, Mississippi, was a man named Prince Edwards (born c. 1830). Read about that discovery HERE. Lo and behold, there's a preponderance of evidence that Grandpa Prince and his brother, Uncle Peter Edwards, were also sons of Ogbar Ogumba! So when Cousin Jeff was relaying his Edwards history to me, it was my history, too . . . . but I didn't know it at the time. I have been able to determine from genealogy research that he was born around 1790.

Based on prior Y-DNA testing, the family has speculated that Ogbar Ogumba may have been from the Gold Coast (present-day Ghana). The Bight of Biafra region (present-day Nigeria, specifically) was also speculated. So while my cousins and I were in Ghana in December, I asked several people about the name. To my surprise, they all proclaimed that "Ogumba" was not a familiar name to Ghana. They claimed its origins to be from the Igbo people of Nigeria. Here's one of the persons I interviewed, as we were standing at Elmina Slave Castle. We are still seeking absolute DNA proof of Ogbar Ogumba's origins. The chances of finding a "paper trail" are extremely slim . . . a miracle! Nonetheless, the Igbo people of Nigeria strongly appear to be his ancestral origins. 



(Excuse my clumsy finger at 1:30.)


Any additional comments regarding Samuel's shirt will be deleted. He is a very nice guy, who worked tirelessly to show us a great time in Ghana. He was very in tune to our history, after listening to us. He did not know that the shirt was offensive. So please do not place any blame or negativity towards him. This illuminates the fact that there needs to be more discussions between Africans and African Americans, to grasp a better understanding of our respective histories on both sides of the Atlantic.
 

Sunday, January 1, 2017

The Miracles of DNA: Our Family Reunion in Ghana, Africa

This is my first blog post for 2017. I am very happy to make this blog post about our dream-like family reunion in Ghana on December 11 & 14, 2016. There will be other blog posts about our spectacular week in Ghana.


My cousins (R to L), Dr. Leroy Frazier, Andre Edwards, James Johnson, and I with our host William Obeng in the middle. My cousins and I all are descendants of Luke Edwards (Ogbar Ogumba) and Lucy Edwards of Panola County (Como), Mississippi.

During Memorial Day weekend of May 2016, my cousins and I discussed the possibility of traveling to Ghana at our Edwards homecoming celebration in northern Mississippi. One of my cousins, Dr. Leroy Frazier, my maternal grandfather’s great-nephew, was already set to travel to Ghana in December. By Labor Day weekend, I had not made the final decision if I was going to accompany them to Ghana or travel there in 2017. I had always wanted to visit Ghana, especially after receiving two DNA matches to Ghanaians, both on my mother’s father's side. One of the DNA matches is Kweku Folson of London. Both of his parents were Ghana immigrants to the UK. His family roots hailed from Winneba and Cape Coast, in the Central Region of south Ghana, and his family are of the Akan people. Kweku’s IBD (Identity by Descent) match to three cousins from the Reed/Edwards side of my mother's family on the same chromosome revealed our ancestral connection to the Gold Coast (Ghana). See this March 2016 blog post for more details concerning this significant DNA match to my Edwards lineage. 

On September 5, 2016, which was Labor Day, I checked my family's DNA accounts to see if any new DNA matches appeared. This is something that I do almost daily. Three months prior, I was able to generate a pseudo-DNA Lazarus kit in GEDmatch for my deceased maternal grandfather, Simpson Reed, using three of his children, including my mother, one of his baby brother's daughters, who is 95 years old, a great-nephew, and 10 Edwards cousins, who had also taken an autosomal DNA test and had uploaded their raw data files to GEDmatch. My grandfather was the grandson of Prince Edwards (a son of Luke & Lucy) of Panola County, Mississippi, his mother's father. While I was scrolling through the list of my grandfather's DNA matches in GEDmatch on that September day, I came across a foreign-looking name that appeared to be African. Her name was Nana Faba Idun. She was also a DNA match to my mother's brother. I immediately contacted LaKisha David, the person who manages Nana Faba's account, on Facebook. She responded within an hour!

To my joy, LaKisha informed me that Nana Faba was an elderly, 81-year-old Fante woman who resides in Elmina, Ghana, where she was born and raised, and the town where Elmina Castle, the slave dungeon, was located in the Central Region of south Ghana. This is the same region where Kweku Folson's family roots are from. She became my family's 3rd DNA match to Ghana! Also to my joy, LaKisha immediately connected me with four of Nana Faba's granddaughters, Rita Quaigrain Owusu, Rhoda Quaigrain, Efua Martin, and Ivy Gyaaba Martin, who were also on Facebook. They immediately embraced me and Cousin Leroy. Nana Faba's granddaughter, Rhoda, who resides in Canada, and LaKisha are best friends. In May 2016, both of them had traveled to Ghana, and while they were there, LaKisha collected saliva samples from Rhoda's mother and maternal grandmother, Nana Faba, for the AncestryDNA test. After receiving the results, LaKisha subsequently uploaded their raw data files to GEDmatch, an effort for TAKiR, the African Kinship Reunion project.

At this point, I then decided to make the trip to Ghana in December with my cousins to see our ancestral homeland. I had only three months to prepare. We arrived in Accra, Ghana on the night of Saturday, December 10, 2016. Two days before arriving, Cousin Leroy received the final confirmation that we were going to be able to meet Cousin Nana Faba Idun and her family. They happily agreed to the "family reunion." To say that I was excited is a gross understatement. The adjective "euphoric" doesn't properly describe how I was feeling! A family reunion with African cousins was something that was beyond my wildest dreams. Just several years ago, I never fathomed that something like this would even be possible! But DNA technology and the efforts of LaKisha and Rhoda, and her grandmother's willingness, made this possible.

One of Cousin Nana Faba's daughters, Faustina Quaigrain, resided in the suburban village of Kasoa, which is adjacent to Accra, the capital city of Ghana. Therefore, the first part of this monumental family reunion was with Cousin Faustina, her husband, Chief Dr. Kennedy Quaigrain, and grandchildren and great grandchildren of Cousin Nana Faba there on Sunday, the day after we arrived in Accra. What a great way to start our visit to Ghana! 

We were warmly welcomed into their home in the Ghanaian traditional style. We conversed about the significance of this family reunion, which was reuniting them with African-American cousins whose ancestors were likely taken away from the Gold Coast, and our reconnecting with the blood descendants in Ghana. Cousin Chief Quaigrain discussed the importance of family connections and maintaining those family ties. We reiterated the effects of the transatlantic slave trade (The Middle Passage) on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean. We expressed to the family how we are just four out of thousands of African-American cousins that they have. Chief Dr. Quaigrain also gave us a brief history lesson about the Fante people of the Central Region of Ghana. The Fante people are a subgroup of the Akan. He poignantly expressed, "Since you all made the great effort in traveling thousands of miles to Ghana to connect with us, we take great pleasure in opening our home and welcoming you all, our family, back home to Ghana." Hearing those words touched our hearts deeply. I felt my eyes watering.

With the daughters, son-in-law, grandchildren, and great-grandchildren
of Cousin Nana Faba Idun in Kasoa, Ghana

Chief Dr. Kennedy Quaigrain discussing the importance of family with us. (Photo by Andre Edwards)

The second part of this great family reunion occurred that Wednesday, December 14, in Cape Coast, Ghana. Our host, William Obeng, and his family planned a Homecoming Reception for us that night, which was attended by over 100 people from the Central Region and Accra. We had no idea that the Obeng Family would literally roll out the red carpet for us! Local dignitaries, their family and friends, as well as the Ghana media, were in attendance to welcome us "home." We were simply in awe. Not only that, since Cousin Nana Faba Idun resided nearby in Elmina, she was able to attend the reception, along with her daughters and grandchildren.

At the reception, we laid eyes on Cousin Nana Faba Idun for the very first time. For a minute, I just sat there and stared at her. I was in disbelief about what was occurring. I simply could not believe it! To garner DNA matches with African cousins is colossal within itself, but to meet that relative in person in Africa took it to a wonderfully greater level that I never imagined. I kept saying to myself, "Is this happening for real?" It was real.

As we sat at the table, talking and laughing with the family, our family, we felt a bond that was no longer hidden and broken. Even one of the camera men stated, "It seemed like you all have known each other for years." We knew that the ancestors were happy. It did not matter at all that we did not know exactly how we are related. This was one of the inhumane effects of American chattel slavery and the transatlantic slave trade. Nonetheless, just the simple fact that we were blood family who had returned back "home" to Ghana was all that mattered. According to LaKisha, Cousin Nana Faba's brother, Joseph “Kawantwi” Arthur, remembered childhood stories from their elders about ancestors being taken away from the Gold Coast, never to return. On December 11, 2016, after over 200 years, they returned home through us. I thank God and the ancestors for this wonderful blessing!

My cousins and I with Cousin Nana Faba Idun, her daughters, and grandchildren in Cape Coast, Ghana

Cousin Nana Faba Idun of Elmina, Ghana and me

Cousin Leroy talking and laughing with Cousin Nana Faba and her granddaughter, Rita

People from Ghana at the Homecoming Reception in Cape Coast

Ghana TV News station 3 at the Homecoming Reception interviewing my cousins and me

Thursday, September 29, 2016

DNA and Genealogy: These Findings Can’t Be Coincidental

 

The image above is from the will of William Edwards Sr. (1780-1855), dated November 14, 1855, Panola County, Mississippi. He had moved to Mississippi from Henry County, Tennessee, around 1837. He left his wife, Margaret Edwards, five of his 33 slaves: LUCY, HARRIET, PETER, PRINCE, and JEFFERY (Source). Prince Edwards (born c. 1830) is my mother’s paternal great grandfather. On the estate inventory, Lucy was given a value of $0. A preponderance of evidence strongly indicates that she was the mother of Harriet, Peter, Prince, and Jeffery, who were named in the will, as well as additional children who were not named in the will but were valued on the estate inventory. Based on oral history accounts and genealogical evidence, the father of her children was Luke Edwards Sr., who was born around 1790. According to my cousin, Dr. Jeffrey Ogbar, Luke was born in West Africa and purchased by the Edwards from a slave ship that anchored in Virginia. Additionally, family elders had written down that his true African name was Ogba(r) Ogumba. Luke Sr. was valued at $150 on the estate inventory. With these facts in mind, recent DNA and genealogical discoveries appear to shine a spotlight on Grandma Lucy. And these observations and findings can’t be coincidental. Follow the trail of DNA and genealogical clues.

OBSERVATION 1 (Genealogy): The Trail Goes Back to Georgia

Comparing the reported birthplaces in the censuses, I observed that several of Grandma Lucy’s children (or someone) reported Georgia as their mother’s birthplace. In particular, Luke Edwards Jr., who was probably the oldest, or one of the oldest children, consistently reported Georgia as his mother’s birthplace, per the 1880 and 1900 Panola County censuses. This is from the 1880 census from ancestry.com:


Note: His father’s birthplace was reported in 1880 as “unknown.”

THEORY 1: Census data strongly indicates that Grandma Lucy Edwards was born in Georgia, around 1797. Her approximate birth year was based on a combination of the slave inventory of William Edwards’ estate, taken on Dec. 15, 1855, where she was the only one who appraised at $0, and the 1850 slave schedule, which indicates that the oldest enslaved female who was owned by William Edwards in 1850 was 53 years old.

OBSERVATION 2 (Genealogy): More Leads to Georgia

Although the 1850 Panola County, Mississippi census reported that both William & Margaret Edwards were born in North Carolina, the state of Georgia was reported by their son, Dr. William Edwards Jr., (or someone) as his father’s birthplace, per the 1880 Attala County, Mississippi census. Shortly after the Civil War, he had moved to Kosciusko, Mississippi. To add, in the 1850 census, William & Margaret’s oldest son, Robert Edwards, was reported as being 40 years old and was born in Tennessee. Both William & Margaret were born in 1780. This is from the 1880 census from ancestry.com: 


THEORY 2: There had to be a reason why Dr. William Edwards Jr. (or someone) reported Georgia as his father’s birthplace. This indicates a likely presence in the state of Georgia at some point. These findings suggest that William Edwards and/or his parents probably migrated from North Carolina to Georgia after 1780, and then William and Margaret were in Henry County, Tennessee by 1810, the approximate birth year of their oldest child, Robert Edwards. Perhaps, William Edwards purchased or inherited Grandma Lucy while he was in Georgia. (Unfortunately, no information has been found so far about William and Margaret’s parents, as well as their marriage record.)

OBSERVATION 3 (DNA): A Revealing DNA Match Named Tracy

Using the “People Who Match Both Kits” option in GEDmatch.com, I observed that Tracy’s father shares a recognizable amount of DNA, ranging from 9 cM to 43 cM, with descendants of Grandma Lucy Edwards, including my mother, her brother and sister (great grandchildren of Prince Edwards), and four of their Edwards cousins (1 great grandson and 3 great great grandchildren of Peter Edwards). Utilizing GEDmatch’s chromosome browser, I observed that the DNA sharing is across multiple chromosome segments with several of them. I also observed that everyone matches on chromosome 19 on overlapping segments. See below. That means that everyone descends from a common ancestor. Interestingly, Tracy shared that her father and his family roots are from Floyd County (Rome), Georgia.


THEORY 3: This DNA match to Tracy is the first DNA evidence indicating a definitive connection to the state of Georgia, and it also suggests that Grandma Lucy had truly come from Georgia. Based on the amount of DNA sharing with Tracy’s father, perhaps one of his ancestors was Grandma Lucy’s sibling? I needed more evidence.

OBSERVATION 4 (Genealogy): Tracy’s Paternal Family Tree Provides Clues

The key to finding ancestral commonalities is by comparing family trees. Fortunately, Tracy provided me with names of her father’s parents and grandparents. I was able to take his family tree back several more generations. Most of his enslaved ancestors were transported to Georgia after 1840 from North Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia. His only ancestors who were in Georgia around 1800 and earlier, during the time frame when Grandma Lucy was born, were his Ware ancestors. His third great grandparents were Jordan & Lucinda Ware, both born c. 1815 in GA, according to the 1870 Floyd County census. 

Since there were white Wares in Floyd County too, I also researched and observed that the slave-owner might have been Edward Ware (1787-1861), who owned over 70 enslaved people in 1860. His burial and a brief biography were found in Find-A-Grave. Edward Ware was born in Amherst County, Virginia and had moved to now Madison County, Georgia, near Danielsville, with his parents and siblings sometime around 1790. After marrying Sarah Penn, the daughter of Wilson Penn, in 1821, they settled in Floyd County. The Penn Family had also migrated from Amherst County, Virginia.

THEORY 4: Based on these findings, I wondered if Grandma Lucy may have been connected to the Wares of Georgia. I needed more evidence.

OBSERVATION 5 (DNA and Genealogy): Another Revealing DNA Match Named Latricia


With the previous theory in mind, I searched among my mother’s DNA matches in AncestryDNA, to see if anymore DNA matches had a Ware in their family tree. I found one, named Latricia, and her Wares were from Tallapoosa County, Alabama. Her mother only shares 9.4 cM with my mother. Her public family tree shows that her mother's great great grandfather was named Clark Ware, who was born around 1820. Georgia was consistently reported as his birthplace in the 1870, 1880, and 1900 censuses. I also observed that there were numerous other black and white Wares in Tallapoosa County, as well as in adjacent Chambers County. Many of them were born in Georgia. Interestingly, another Jordan Ware, who was born around 1830 in Georgia, was also in the area. This can’t be coincidental. Even more revealing, I clicked on “Shared Matches” and observed that Latricia's mother also shares DNA with three Edwards cousins. That can’t be coincidental, too! Fortunately, I soon realized that Latricia had also uploaded to GEDmatch. She shares DNA with my mother and three Edwards cousins (two great great grandchildren of Peter and one great great grandson of Grandpa Prince) in the same area on their chromosome 17. See below.


I researched further and learned that the slave-owning Ware family in that area was headed by Philip Ware (1786-1853). He and his family had moved to Alabama from Georgia around 1840. Yes, Madison County, Georgia! Per the 1850 Tallapoosa County slave schedule, he and his son, Jonathan Ware, owned over 60 slaves. Born in Amherst County, Virginia, Philip was a first cousin to Edward Ware of Floyd County, Georgia. He had died in 1853, while visiting his sister in Madison County, Georgia, according to Find-A-Grave.

THEORY 5: Latricia is likely related via Grandma Lucy, and the roads seem to be leading back to the Wares of Madison County, Georgia. Perhaps, this is where Grandma Lucy was born? Still, I needed and desired more evidence.

OBSERVATION 6 (DNA): A Third Revealing DNA Match, Mr. Payne

In AncestryDNA, I observed that my mother shares DNA with another Ware descendant, Mr. Payne, whose great grandmother, Lavada Ware, and her father, Richard Ware, were from Tallapoosa County, Alabama. He shares 16.7 cM over 2 segments with my mother. I clicked on “Shared Matches” and observed that Mr. Payne also matches 5 Edwards cousins! A famous quote states, “Once is chance, twice is coincidence, and a third time is a pattern.” There’s a pattern!


OBSERVATION 7 (DNA): A Fourth Revealing DNA Match Named Steven

GEDmatch’s Tier 1 tool, called “Triangulation,” identifies and confirms triangulation groups from your DNA matches. Tier 1 utility tools are only available to people who donate at least $10. People in these triangulation groups all share a common ancestor, since they share DNA in the same area on one or more of their chromosomes. With this cool tool, GEDmatch placed a DNA match named Steven and his mother in a group that contained them, my mother, and three Edwards cousins (1 great great grandson of Prince and 2 great great grandsons of Peter). Utilizing GEDmatch’s chromosome browser, I observed that Steven matches everyone, as well as my mother’s first cousin twice removed, on chromosome 17. Not only that, as shown below, he matches Latricia in the same area (see observation 5).


Since Steven’s GEDmatch number begins with an “A”, which means that he took the AncestryDNA test, I looked for him among my mother’s DNA matches. I found him, and fortunately, he had a public family tree. Since the connection is on his mother’s side, I investigated his mother’s ancestors. His maternal grandfather was from St. Mary’s County, Maryland. However, my eyes bucked when I observed that his maternal grandmother and her family were from Nelson and Amherst County, Virginia! My eyes also got even larger when I observed that one of his great great grandmothers was named Gabriella PENN.

In Observation 4 above, I explained that the wife of Edward Ware, who owned a plantation in Floyd County, Georgia, had married Wilson Penn’s daughter, Sarah Penn, before they moved from Madison County to Floyd County in 1822. Like the Ware Family, Wilson Penn was also originally from Amherst County, Virginia. He died in 1811, in a portion of Elbert County, Georgia that became Madison County later that year. Fortunately, I found Wilson Penn’s will and estate record on ancestry.com. In his will, he instructed his wife and his executors to sell his land and estate for the benefit of his wife and their children. An inventory of his estate, taken on Jan. 9, 1812, contained the names and “value” of 13 enslaved people. One of them was named LUCY! She was “valued” at $400. Also, one of the executors of his estate was Edward Ware.

Source: Ancestry.com. Georgia, Wills and Probate Records, 1742-1992 [database on-line]. Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2015.

THEORY 6: I don’t know if this was Grandma Lucy Edwards, but these findings open the gateway to further research of Georgia records for confirmations. She may be my Lucy, or she may be her mother, or she may be another family member, but the fact that there was a “Lucy” among Wilson Penn’s slaves, considering the aforementioned DNA and genealogical findings, renders this to be more than coincidental, in my opinion. 

Conclusion: These DNA and genealogical findings added more to the developing narrative of my Edwards family history. This was made possible because multiple members of the Edwards family have taken a DNA test and adhered to my recommendation of uploading their raw data files to GEDmatch. Additionally, all of the aforementioned DNA matches had a public family tree. As a result, we now know a little bit more about Grandma Lucy’s likely origins in northern Georgia. We now know with much certainty that our ancestral origins likely go back to the Amherst County, Virginia area, and by a forced migration, one or both of Grandma Lucy’s parents were likely taken to Madison County, Georgia, shortly before 1800. Somehow, William Edwards gained possession of her, either by a purchase or maybe as an inheritance, and she was transported to Henry County, Tennessee before 1817. Then by 1837, when she was around 40 years old, William Edwards moved her, Grandpa Luke Sr., and their children to Panola County, Mississippi, near Como. To add, quite possibly one of Grandma Lucy’s ancestors was an African from the Malagasy people of Madagascar. See Trekking the Edwards DNA Trail Back to Madagascar. Yes, I love this DNA stuff!

Saturday, July 23, 2016

Africa’s Major Contributions to Civilization

 

On Monday on MSNBC, Iowa Republican representative Steve King, with his white supremacist mentality, made an ignorant claim that white people have made more contributions to western civilization than other “sub-groups.” He stated, “I’d ask you to go back to your history and figure out where are these contributions that have been made by these other categories of people that you’re talking about, where did any other sub-group of people contribute more to civilization?” I continue to be in awe of the ignorance that many with his mindset spew from their mouths.

If they have read anything at all, they seemed to have read the works of many European historians who have credited the Greeks, Romans, and other Europeans for the sciences and technologies that contributed to the development of civilization. Those historians revised history to support their ideology of white supremacy. They have even claimed that ancient Egyptians (Kemites) were “dark-skinned whites” who built the pyramids. Maybe they did not know that even “Egypt,” a country in North Africa, means “Black.” Maybe they closed their eyes to the fact that “Kemet” means “Land of Black People.” They deliberately tried to hide the fact that Kemites (people of Kemet) and Nubians had migrated across central and northern Africa to West Africa, greatly influencing the diverse, West African cultures from which we African Americans descend from. Contrary to their mendacious history, many groups of people have greatly contributed to civilization. However, I want to take a quick break from genealogical and DNA blog postings to highlight some of the many contributions from Africa. Civilization and humankind emanated from Africa.

A plethora of sources unmistakably show that the origins of many scientific inventions truly hailed from Africa. Unfortunately, we – the descendants of Africans who were forcibly extracted from their homeland and enslaved in America – have been falsely taught that our ancestors had little or nothing to do with the development of civilization.  Obviously that was a huge lie. Anthropological evidence has shown that advances in engineering, mathematics, navigation, physics and other fields of science occurred in purely African societies long before it was previously believed possible (1). Many things that we utilize today should be credited to the historical accomplishments of Africa. I will expound on a few.

Paper, Alphabet, Ink, and Pen

Many inventions from Africa contributed to the birth of every technology that exists today. Of those many inventions, scholars such as John G. Jackson (1993) believed that the greatest inventions were the paper, alphabet, ink, and pen.  The Kemites of northern Africa discovered the need for something other than stone to write upon; therefore, they invented the paper from stripes of papyrus reed. The word “paper” was derived from the word “papyrus,” a Kemetic word that originally meant “that which belongs to the house.” The ink was made from a combination of vegetable gum, soot, and water. James Henry Breasted (1915) asserted that writing has played the single most important role in the uplifting and advancing of civilization – a greater role than any other intellectual invention in the history of Humankind (2).  Clearly, many technologies of today would not have been conceived efficiently without the Kemites’ ingenious inventions of the paper, alphabet, ink, and pen.  

Calendar

Another great invention of mankind was the invention of the calendar by the people of ancient Kemet. Through their meticulous study of the sun, moon, and stars, they were able to precisely calculate the flooding of the Nile River which was vital to their ability to farm. The Kemites discovered that the movement and position of the sun and the moon had a direct effect on all objects on the planet Earth. From this revelation, the astronomers of Kemet were the first to develop a solar calendar which divided the year into 365 days with 12 months of 30 days each. An additional five days were interjected in the end of the year. These five days corresponded to the birth of the Gods (Netcherw) Osiris, Isis, Horus, Set, and Nephthys, who were the progenitors of the human race (3).  Successive civilizations went on to create their own calendars, owing much to the pioneering development in ancient Kemet.    

Electricity

Electricity is the “fuel” for most technologies today. Many devices simply will not operate without electricity. The world has now become so dependent on electricity, that many people will find it extremely difficult to live without it. When I researched to determine the inventor of electricity, several sources credit that invention to the Greek scientist, Thales of Miletus. Even in their book entitled Electricity by C.A. Coulson and T.J.M. Boyd, the following statements were made:

The fact that a piece of amber, when rubbed, will attract small particles of matter was known 2500 years ago by Thales of Miletus.  From this simple experimental fact has developed the whole science of electrostatics, which deals with the properties of electricity at rest.  Indeed the very word electricity is derived from the Greek word for amber, η’λεκτρον.  Since the beginnings of physics with the Milesian school of philosophers in the sixth century B.C., a great deal of experimental knowledge of electricity has accumulated, especially in the last 200 years (4).

Numerous other sources also extended credit to Thales of Miletus. Scholars claimed that he discovered that when amber was rubbed with other materials, it became charged with an unknown force that had the power to attract objects such as dried leaves, feathers, bits of cloth, or other lightweight materials. Of all the sources investigated, all of them omitted the fact that Thales of Miletus received an education in ancient Kemet. His ability for keen observation can be contributed to the Black people of ancient Kemet. He studied in Egypt and Babylon, bringing back knowledge of physics, astronomy and mathematics. Documented evidence shows that the Babylonians copied and obtained all of their knowledge from the people of ancient Kemet. Although the Kemites did not directly invent electricity, their influence and teachings enabled Thales of Miletus to discover this invention that had an enormous effect on the world of the successive generations.

Mathematics

In the area of mathematics, the papyrus rolls, the limestone chips, and the leather rolls clearly outlined many of the rules of arithmetic and geometry by the people of ancient Kemet. The longest roll, which was written by the Kemetic scribe, Ahmose, is known as the “Rhind Mathematical Papyrus” after Alexander Rhind who brought it to Europe. Some of the mathematical equations in this papyrus included the Pythagorean Theorem, methods for determining the surface of the triangle, rectangle, and circle, and methods for determining the volume of a sphere.  Long before the Ahmose papyrus was written, Kemetic mathematicians were already guiding the construction of pyramids and measuring the cotangent to guarantee that the pyramids would be stable. Even our present-day decimal system is a direct result of mathematics originated by the Kemites.

Ancient Kemetic mathematics did not die; it simply blended into the new mathematics of the classical period.  Books by Greek classical mathematicians fully acknowledge their debt to ancient Egypt (5). As Greek city states developed, a number of Greeks traveled to Egypt to study. In fact, the Greek philosopher, Aristotle, said that “Egypt was the cradle of mathematics.”  Eudoxus, who was Aristotle’s teacher and a foremost mathematician of his time, had also studied in ancient Kemet before teaching mathematics in Greece. Isokrates and Plato were profoundly influenced by ancient Egyptian philosophy. Euclid learned mathematics in Ancient Kemet before applying it elsewhere. However, many Western historiographers will vehemently deny that the origins of mathematics came from ancient Kemet.

Medicine

Yes, medicine! Society has become accustomed to crediting the beginnings of scientific medicine to Hippocrates, a Greek physician who lived in the 5th century B.C. He was given the distinction as being the “Father of Medicine.” Physicians all over the world take the semi-sacred Hippocratic Oath upon completion of their medical studies. Although Hippocrates has exercised an immense influence on medicine for nearly 25 centuries, he never gave himself the title of “Father of Medicine.” Additionally, it is very evident that Hippocrates and his students drew heavily upon the theories and practices of ancient Egyptian medicine (6). 

Researchers have discovered that the Edwin Smith Papyrus is the oldest medical manuscript in existence.The papyrus was published in 1930 by James H. Breasted. He spent ten years translating the document. It is believed to have been written by Imhotep, a descendant of a distinguished architect named Kanofer and who was recognized as the “Egyptian God of Medicine” (7). Although written during the 18th dynasty of ancient Kemet, this manuscript is actually a late copy of an original first produced early in the Old Kingdom sometime between 4400-4200 B.C. (8) 

In ancient Kemet, the first anatomical descriptions appeared in a systematic way in the Edwin Smith Papyrus.  More than 200 different anatomical parts have been described in the manuscript. Also, forty-eight different injuries to the head, face, neck, thorax and spinal column and the appropriate surgical methods for attending to them were also described in this papyrus. Other medical information related to dermatology, dentistry, gynecology, tumors, cardiovascular system, obstetrics, and many more were found in the Ebers Papyrus, which was written around 1500 B.C. From these extensive medical transcripts of ancient Kemet, Europeans were able to grasp vital knowledge of the field of medicine.

Conclusion

The descendants of Africans in America endured many years of physical, inhumane bondage known as chattel slavery, the worst kind of slavery that ever existed. However, a new form of bondage permeates throughout our society. Mental slavery has been implemented by the deliberate withholding of African history and the rewriting of history by people of European descent to justify their self-proclaimed superiority. Also, mental slavery thrives because of an ignorance of the correct history of this world that is not being taught in our schools. It is of dire importance that the truth is told and passed down to the next generations. Our history did NOT begin with slavery!

Sources

(1)   Ivan Van Sertima (Ed.), Egypt, Child of Africa (New Brunswick:  Transaction Publishers, 1995), 262.
(2)   Antoinette T. Jackson, Why Kemet? A Cultural Awakening, An African-Centered Journey into Ancient Egypt, (Oak Park, IL:  Seshat, 1998), 24.
(3)   Anthony T. Browder, Nile Valley Contributions to Civilization, (Washington, D.C.:  The Institute of Karmic Guidance, 1992), 75.
(4)   C.A. Coulson and T.J.M. Boyd, Electricity, 2nd ed. (London:  Longman, 1979), 1
(5)   Sertima (Ed.), Egypt, Child of Africa, 325-326.
(6)   Ivan Van Sertima, Egypt Revisited (New Brunswick:  Transaction Publishers, 1993), 325.
(7)   Jamieson B. Hurry, M.A., M.D., Imhotep, The Egyptian God of Medicine (Chicago: Ares Publishers, 1987), 4.
(8)   Sertima, Egypt Revisited, 329.