Thursday, July 13, 2017

No Longer Invisible

 
John Israel Towner (1853 – 1938) of DeRidder, Louisiana
(Shared by his great-great-grandson, Ivan McMahon, with permission.)

I actually gasped when I laid eyes on this magnificent picture! John Israel Towner of DeRidder, Beauregard Parish, Louisiana was born in Mississippi on March 20, 1853, according to his death certificate and his tombstone. Therefore, he had been enslaved for the first 12 years of his life. I am enamored by this picture for two reasons. First, he is exuding joy in this picture, and he was a man who likely endured a lot of hardships during his life, before and after slavery. I seldom see photographs of people smiling in old pictures. But Cousin John Israel is illuminating with happiness. He was probably counting his blessings, including the fact that he was able to purchase and take this picture before he died on October 27, 1938, at the age of 85. In 1930, when the census taker visited his daughter Julia Ida Towner’s home in the town of DeRidder on Midway Road, with whom he was living, he was noted as being a janitor at a local school. At the age of 77, he was still a strong man who was still holding down a job.

1930 Census; De Ridder, Beauregard, Louisiana; Roll: 784; Page: 11B; Enumeration District: 0004; Image: 851.0; FHL microfilm: 2340519

Secondly, this picture fascinates me because I am looking at the face of another close relative who had been born into slavery, in addition to how my family’s relationship to him and his family was discovered. I discovered that Cousin John’s mother, Ellen Towner, who was born around 1834 in Virginia, was very likely a sister to my father’s great-grandmother, Jane Parrott Ealy of Leake County, Mississippi, who was born around 1829, also in Virginia. After 1860, Grandma Jane and Aunt Ellen never saw each other again. Aunt Ellen and her children were taken to the southwestern corner of Louisiana, near Texas, to the Sugartown community of Beauregard (then Calcacieu) Parish, probably right before or during the Civil War. Over 300 miles now separated them….permanently. 

Cousin John appeared to have been Aunt Ellen’s third child of her nine found children – Melford Towner, Ellen Towner Atkins, John Israel Towner, Sally Towner Carthen, Martha Towner Smith, Louis Wells, George W. Wells, Harriet Alzeara Wells Iles, and Richard Wells. Those children produced many descendants who lived/lives in southwestern Louisiana, near Sugartown, DeRidder, Lake Charles, as well as near Alexandria, and also in Texas.

How did I figure this out? Well, DNA uncovered Aunt Ellen. Had it not been for DNA, she would have remained an unseen ancestor. She is no longer invisible. Fortunately, a number of her descendants are taking an autosomal DNA test, and I hope that many of them will learn more about her via this blog post. With six pieces of evidence – two DNA pieces and four genealogical pieces – this is how I connected the dots.

DNA Evidence 1

Two of Grandma Jane’s great-grandchildren, my father and his first cousin, F. Kennedy, and at least five other descendants are sharing DNA with great-great and great-great-great grandchildren of Aunt Ellen. Specifically, my father and his first cousin are both matching at least 8 descendants, from 16.8 cM to 89.1 cM. See chart below. Most of these 8 matches took the AncestryDNA test, so I am unable to utilize a chromosome browser and DNA triangulation, which are essential in determining and verifying family connections with DNA. That’s why many genetic genealogists, geneticists, and DNA scholars strongly recommend that AncestryDNA test-takers upload their raw data files to GEDmatch. Nonetheless, matching numerous people who all descend from the same ancestor points to that ancestor, especially when no other connections are found.


J. Collier
My Father’s First Cousin
M. Ware
(great-great-grandson via Sally Towner Carthen)
43.1
16.8
A.T.
(great-great-granddaughter via John Israel Towner)
25.3
17.3
L. Dixon
(great-great-granddaughter via Ellen Towner Atkins)
31.2
77.0
C. Gillespie
(great-great-great grandson via Ellen Towner Atkins)
44.3
18.9
A. Williams
(great-great-granddaughter via Ellen Towner Atkins)
89.1
63.8
L. Matthews
(great-great-granddaughter via Ellen Towner Atkins)
18.2
18.2
M. Gillespie
(great-great-granddaughter via Ellen Towner Atkins)
43.0
Can’t Determine Now
A. Atkins
(great-great-grandson via Ellen Towner Atkins)
45.0
0
Note: A great-great-grandchild would be a third cousin once removed, and a great-great-great grandchild would be a third cousin twice removed.

DNA Evidence 2

N. Smith and V. Jones, two female descendants of Grandma Jane, and C. Harris, a male descendant of Grandma Jane, share DNA on the X chromosome with three of Ellen’s descendants. Utilizing the X-DNA inheritance chart, I was able to determine that Grandma Jane could have been one of the contributors to their X-DNA, and that segment matches some of the X-DNA that those three descendants of Ellen could have inherited from her. Those three descendants (A. Williams, L. Matthews, & M. Gillespie) are two half-sisters and their father’s niece. That X-DNA that all six of them inherited came from a MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestor), which would be a parent of Ellen and Jane. Therefore, sharing DNA on the X chromosome is a big piece of DNA evidence.

Genealogical Evidence 1

Virginia was reported as Ellen’s birthplace in the 1880 Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana census, although Mississippi was reported as her birthplace in the 1870 Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana census. To add, Virginia was reported as the mother’s birthplace for most of Ellen’s children in the 1880 and later censuses. Therefore, this strongly indicates that Ellen was likely born in Virginia. This is important because Grandma Jane was also born in Virginia around 1829. Research has uncovered that her enslaver, William Parrott, moved his family and slaves from Lunenburg County, Virginia, to Leake County, Mississippi shortly before 1840. Ellen’s age was reported as being 35 in 1870 and 46 in 1880, placing her time of birth around 1834.

Genealogical Evidence 2

In the 1870 Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana census, Ellen’s surname was reported as Iles. She lived next door to a white Iles Family, John Iles and his wife, Martha Atkinson Iles. Therefore, she was likely residing on the Iles farm near Sugartown. She was the head of the household. Then, in the 1880 census, her name was reported as Ellen Towner. She was also the head of the household and reported as being widowed/divorced.

Determining Martha’s maiden name (Atkinson) proved to be an eye-opener because I found Martha and her parents, Manson & Elizabeth Atkinson, in the 1860 Leake County, Mississippi census. They had migrated to Sugartown, Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana shortly after the 1860 census was taken. Mississippi was sometimes reported as the birthplace of Ellen’s older children, who were born from 1850 to 1861. Additionally, Ellen’s oldest daughter, also named Ellen, was married to Arthur Atkinson, who was also born in Mississippi and who later went in the surname of Atkins after 1870.

Genealogical Evidence 3

Manson Atkinson was also found in the 1860 slave schedule of Leake County, Mississippi. However, the census taker reported “Manson Atkinson for himself and 2 others” as being the owners of 28 enslaved people. Well, who are the “2 others”? I noticed that in the 1860 census, Manson’s household contained five children, ages 16 to 8, who had the Towner surname. Their relationship to Manson has not been determined. Perhaps, the “2 others” may have been the oldest Towner children, John Towner, age 16, and James Towner, age 14. Interestingly, the census taker noted that John Towner was a student, with a personal estate valued at $11,000. This likely included slaves. This finding establishes the fact that the Towner surname is indeed connected to the white Atkinson/Iles Family. Perhaps, those Towners also moved to Louisiana with the Atkinsons, transporting those 28 enslaved people with them?? I did not find them in the 1870 census.

Genealogical Evidence 4

In the 1850 slave schedule, William Parrott was reported as owning 13 enslaved people. Six of them were females, noted as Black, with the following estimated ages: 38, 21, 16, 10, 9, and 5. The 21-year-old matches the age of Grandma Jane. Per the 1860 slave schedule, William Parrott owned 5 females that year who were above the age of 10. Their estimated ages were reported as 50, 31, 18, 17, and 14. What happened to the 16-year-old who was counted in 1850? She would have been around 26 years old in 1860. This matches the approximate age of Ellen, who was born around 1834. Hmmm….. 

Since slave schedules do not contain the names of the slaves, this record can only serve as an aggregate piece of circumstantial evidence, to show that a female girl matching Ellen’s age was not enslaved by William Parrott anymore by 1860. Maybe one day, I will find a court record or something that supports my theory that William Parrott had sold Aunt Ellen to the Towners or Atkinsons, who moved her to southwestern Louisiana. But the DNA and genealogical evidence at hand are pretty compelling, in my opinion. Aunt Ellen, I see you! You are now visible!

Friday, March 31, 2017

Diagramming the Family, the History, and the DNA

Visual learning with charts, diagrams, illustrations, etc. is often conducive for many people to comprehend information. Why not apply it to family history research and DNA. I decided to build a diagram in Microsoft Word, using the hierarchy Smart Art graphic, to show how DNA links the family history research of my mother’s great great grandmother, Margaret Peggy” Milam of Tate County, Mississippi, and her parents and siblings.

The research that uncovered the origins and sad saga of Grandma Peggy Milam and her family has been featured in several past blog posts, noted below. According to 1870 and 1880 U.S. census records, Grandma Peggy Milam was born in Tennessee around 1829. She and my great great great grandfather, Wade Milam, and their children had been enslaved by Joseph R. Milam in present-day Tate County. To make a long story short, an 1839 bill of sale recorded in adjacent Marshall County enabled me to uncover that her previous enslaver was Edward Warren (c. 1775-1842), as well as the names of her parents and several siblings. He transported Grandma Peggy and her family to Marshall County, Mississippi from the hills of Williamson County, Tennessee around 1836, when she was just a young girl. She and her family were eventually split apart, taken to various areas of Mississippi and Arkansas, likely to never see each other again.

Fortunately, DNA has proven this research and her family. This diagram shows the displaced branches of her family tree, the history, and how DNA triangulation connected the branches, to prove that Grandma Peggy’s parents, my mother’s great great great grandparents, Adam and Sarah, were the MRCA (Most Recent Common Ancestors).


Click image to view a larger image.

This history reflects several things that researchers should keep in mind:

1.     Like Henderson Herron and Random Briscoe, it was common for two brothers to take different surnames, especially if they had been sold away from each other and their parents.
2.     For African Americans, the descendants of enslaved people of African descent in the United States, many of our DNA matches are from displaced family members who were separated from our direct ancestors during slavery.
3.     The more slave ancestral research that is conducted and documented on our enslaved ancestors, as well as the history and migration patterns of the enslaver’s family, the better the chance of connecting with some of our DNA matches.
4.     Our family histories involve numerous surnames, due to our enslaved ancestors taking different surnames for various reasons. Check out genealogist Robyn Smith’s “The Complexity of Slave Surnames.” The four branches in this diagram had different surnames. What would be the “root surname” for this family? (Feel free to comment below.)
5.     Pay attention to names in the family. Both Grandma Peggy Milam and her displaced sister, Caledonia Ellis, named a son HENDERSON. These four children all named a daughter SARAH. Uncle Henderson Herron named a son ADAM. Names are often great connecting clues.
6.     Never assume that all of an enslaved couple’s or an enslaved woman’s children were documented in the enslaver’s will, estate record, slave inventory, etc. Adam and Sarah’s son, Henderson Herron, was never found in the records of Edward Warren’s estate. He had been sold or given to Edward’s daughter. DNA found him. See link below to read about that discovery. Another daughter, named Rachel, was also not documented in Edward Warren’s estate. She too had also been transferred to another son and taken to Magnolia, Arkansas.

To read more about how each of these four branches were discovered genealogically and genetically (DNA), see the following past blog posts:

(1)  Finding Grandma Peggy Milam’s Origins and Parents: “Name Discrepancies Can Often Lead to More”
(2)  Finding Henderson Herron: “DNA Uncovers an Unknown Brother”
(3)  Finding Random Briscoe: “The Truth Is In the Spit”
(5)  Finding Rachel Warren of Columbia County, Arkansas (another daughter): COMING SOON

Saturday, March 4, 2017

The Family Was Broken but the DNA Wasn’t

In 150 Years Later: Broken Ties Mended, I wrote the following about how I learned that a man named Pleasant (Pleas) Barr (1814-1889) of Tippah County (Ripley), Mississippi was the father of my mother’s paternal grandfather, William “Bill” Reed (1846-1937) of Tate County (Senatobia), Mississippi. Grandpa Bill’s death certificate provided his name. He, his sister Mary, and others came to northern Mississippi in 1866, from Abbeville, South Carolina, shortly after gaining their freedom. Grandpa Bill Reed told stories to his children and grandchildren about his experiences as a slave in South Carolina. Many of those stories are in the book. Here’s one account:

After discovering Pleasant Barr, I called Cousin Ike and expressed ecstatically, “I found out Grandpa Bill’s father’s name!  It was Pleas Barr!”

The name jarred his memory. He immediately shared, “Yeah, that’s right!  Boy, you are sure digging up some history! Grandpa Bill told us that his father was named Pleas, and that’s where Uncle Pleas’ name came from.”

“So he talked about his father,” I questioned.

“Oh yeah, all the time! He told us that his father was sold away, and they never saw him again. He used to talk about the day it happened. He said that they loaded his father on a wagon, and as the wagon was leaving the place, Grandpa just stood there and watched until the wagon was out of sight. It crossed some creek near the place where they were at, and it went down into a valley, and went off into the sunset. His father was gone but not forgotten. He talked about that so often because he always wondered where they took him. He was a young boy at the time.”

I was floored by this vivid account but saddened by what it gave an account of.

“What about his mother? Did he talk about her, too,” I asked with grave curiosity.

Bewildered, he stated, “You know, he didn’t talk about his mother much. He talked about an older sister that took care of him, but I don’t recall much of anything ever being said about his mother. I don’t know what may have happened to her.” 

Apparently, Uncle Jimmy Reed also did not know much about Grandpa Bill’s mother since the words “not known” were written on his death certificate.

Cousin Ike’s account sent chills through me like water flowing down the mighty Mississippi River. He continued, “Grandpa sure did love his father though. I remember him telling us how he was such a fun-loving man who would always joke around with the other slaves there on the place. You know that was really hard on him to be separated from his father like that, never to see him again and never knowing where his father was at. He would always say that he watched his father being taken away, off into the sunset.” (Chapter 3, “Gone But Not Forgotten,” pp. 44-45)

In 150 Years Later: Broken Ties Mended, I chronicled how years of connecting the dots through oral history, genealogy research, and slave ancestral genealogy research enabled me to reconstruct Grandpa Bill Reed’s family story and family tree – one that got broken in 1859 in Abbeville, South Carolina. That year, his father was sold away and taken to Ripley, Mississippi, and William Barr Jr. took his mother, Isabella Barr, his paternal grandmother, Fanny Barr, and his father’s sister, Sue Barr Beckley (born c. 1812), her husband Jacob Sr., and their twelve children to Pontotoc County, Mississippi. Barr had sold Grandpa Bill and his sister to his first cousin, Lemuel Reid, there in Abbeville. Grandpa Bill never laid eyes on them again, but he told his family about them, particularly his father, Pleas, and his first cousin, Cannon Beckley, with whom he had a brother-like relationship. I told the story of this discovery and presented a great amount of documentation.

Although the preponderance of evidence was quite abundant, I would sometimes ask myself, “What if?” Sometimes, the truth is not always what the paper records indicate. What if I misinterpreted my research findings? What if I had missed something? What if I saw something that really wasn’t there? What if I drew the wrong conclusions? These were usually just quick thoughts because the amount of genealogical records and oral history I presented in the book left my shadow of doubt at a very low 5%.

Now we have autosomal DNA testing (AncestryDNA, 23andMe, or Family Tree DNA) to not only learn about what is in our DNA and who our biological relatives are, but we can also prove some of our research through DNA matches. We can also connect with family branches of our family tree that we never knew existed. We can add more narrative to our ancestors’ stories. This is what makes autosomal DNA and genetic genealogy very exciting for me. As descendants of enslaved people of African descent in America, African Americans will undoubtedly have numerous DNA matches to people whose ancestors were forcibly separated from their loved ones during slavery.

DNA now has my shadow of doubt at ZERO percent with Grandpa Bill Reed’s family roots. When his father was sold and taken to Ripley, Mississippi, Grandpa Pleas Barr continued on with his life as best as he knew how. He remarried to a widowed lady named Amanda Young, and they had one child together, Elijah Barr, who was born about 1866/1867. I can’t help but wonder if Grandpa Pleas told Elijah about his children back in Abbeville, South Carolina. Sadly, before he died in/around 1889, Grandpa Pleas never learned that Grandpa Bill Reed and Aunt Mary Pratt had left South Carolina shortly after slavery and were just sixty miles away from him, over near Senatobia, Mississippi. They were so close but still so far.

Uncle Elijah Barr eventually moved to Memphis, Tennessee, where he married Lula Winston on March 16, 1908. Before Elijah died in 1918, he and Lula had two children: Frances Barr Evans (1909-1991) and Rev. James Matthew Barr (1913-198?). His descendants, via his daughter Frances, were finally found last year after I clicked on a “Shaky Leaf” family tree hint in ancestry.com. That “Shaky Leaf” led me to a family tree uploaded by Ivy of California, indicating that the same Elijah Barr was her great great grandfather! Soon afterwards, another descendant, a great great grandson named Keith of Chicago, shared pictures! One of them included this old picture of Elijah’s widow, Lula, and their two children.


Elijah Barr’s widow, Lula Winston Barr, and their two children, Frances & James Barr. Shortly after Elijah’s death, she and her children moved to Chicago, Illinois. Shared by Keith Evans

Subsequently, I also learned that another descendant, a great great granddaughter of Elijah, had taken the 23andMe DNA test. Lo and behold, Jessica was among our DNA matches, matching me, my mother, my aunt, and their paternal first cousin Armintha on overlapping segments on chromosomes 3 and 4. To add, and not shown here, she also matches my mother's paternal first cousin's grandson, Dr. Leroy Frazier, at 23 cM.


As mentioned earlier, William Barr Jr. took Sue Barr Beckley and her husband Jacob and their twelve children to Pontotoc County, Mississippi. The preponderance of evidence led me to conclude that she was Grandpa Pleas Barr’s sister and both of them were children of Lewis Barr (born c. 1780) and Fanny Barr (born c. 1790). To date, at least six descendants of Sue have taken an autosomal DNA test, and they are DNA matches.

(1)  In AncestryDNA, wa7860 shares 42 cM over 2 segments with my mother. Sue is his 4th-great grandmother via her son, Cannon Beckley (1840-1903). He and my mother are third cousins three times removed.


(2)  In AncestryDNA, kismo7185 shares 30 cM over 2 segments with my mother. Sue is her 3rd-great grandmother via her son, Cannon Beckley (1840-1903). She and my mother are third cousins twice removed.


(3)  In AncestryDNA, M.G. shares 28 cM over 4 segments with my mother. Sue is her great great grandmother via her son, Cannon Beckley (1840-1903). She and my mother are third cousins once removed.


(4)  In AncestryDNA, OnreaR shares 30 cM over 2 segments with my mother. Sue is her 3rd-great grandmother via her son, Cannon Beckley (1840-1903). She and my mother are third cousins twice removed.


(5)  In AncestryDNA, J.R. shares 8.5 cM with my mother. Sue is his 3rd-great grandmother via her son, Cannon Beckley (1840-1903). He and my mother are third cousins twice removed.


(6)  In 23andMe, Arlene shares 21 cM with my uncle and my aunt on overlapping segments. Sue is her 3rd-great grandmother via her son, Clay Beckley (1846-1903). They are third cousins twice removed. Arlene also shares DNA with Jessica at 25 cM. They are fifth cousins.

Since Ancestry.com has refused to provide their millions of DNA customers with a chromosome browser, like 23andMe and Family Tree DNA have done, and since three of the seven haven’t uploaded their raw data files to GEDmatch.com, I am unable to do more DNA triangulations. But there’s no doubt in my mind that this is DNA from Lewis & Fanny Barr, our Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA), that is shared among them. The family was broken during slavery, but the DNA wasn’t. 

1880 Pontotoc County, Mississippi Census: Grandpa Bill Reed’s paternal grandmother, Fanny Barr, was still alive when the 1880 census was taken. Her age was reported as being 100 years old. She was living with her grandson, Rev. Jacob Beckley Jr.



Sunday, February 19, 2017

My “Kunta Kinte”: Part 2 of “The Search for Our African Ancestor’s Birthplace”

 
Map of Nigeria (Source: Africa World News)

On February 1, I posted The Search for Our African Ancestor’s Birthplace.” That blog post contains a video of Samuel Siaw of Cape Coast, Ghana giving us some great insight concerning my mother’s great great grandfather Luke Edwards’ African name – OGBAR OGUMBA. He immediately linked the name to the Igbo people of Nigeria, instead of Ghana. Please check out that post to understand the context of this discovery.

Naja Chinyere Njoku, the founder and moderator of the DNA Tested African Descendants Facebook groups, read my blog post and immediately contacted a Nigerian chief (Igbo) for more information about my ancestor’s African name. Chief Okorie Mba (Eze Amufi) of Asaga Ohafia, Nigeria (Abia State) was very familiar with the name! He relayed the following information:

There are two meanings of the name, (1) As a place, it means town or village, (2) the name Mba means the braggart, big mouth, admonisher, showoff, backer or bouncer of the family.... or a fighter. Ogu Mba means righteousness of a town. Ogba as a name is rampant in my village. It is a short cut to the name Ogbanta, which used to be an honorary name given to a great hunter.

For example:
Ogba Anu means animal shooter.
Ogba Agu means lion shooter.
Ogbu Agu means lion killer.
Ogba (r) means shooter.
Ogbu (h) means killer.

The correct name should be Ogba as in Mba. The (r) and (h) were added by colonial masters for easier pronunciation. Please note that the O will have a dot under.

While recording the oral history from family elders in the 1970s in Panola County (Como), Mississippi, the late Cousin Rev. Sidney Edwards also wrote the following about Grandpa Luke (Ogbar Ogumba), “He had a high pitched voice and never let up during a conversation." Compare this piece of oral history to the meaning of the name from Chief Okorie Mba that is highlighted in red above. Yes, I am astounded. This appears to be more than coincidental to me!

To date, this is by far the most compelling piece of linguistic evidence we have gotten. To add, nearly all of the males with the surname OGUMBA on Facebook are from Nigeria. We are getting closer!

Combined snapshots from the 1855 slave inventory of William Edwards’ estate, Panola County, Mississippi, taken on December 15, 1855. At the end of the inventory, placed at the top of this image, Luke Sr. (Ogbar Ogumba) was inventoried with a value of $150. At the top of the inventory, there’s another Luke, who was Luke Edwards, Jr., born around 1815. Luke Edwards, Jr. died after 1900 in Panola County, Mississippi. Prince Edwards (born c. 1830) was my mother’s great grandfather.

Wednesday, February 1, 2017

The Search For Our African Ancestor’s Birthplace

I am posting this blog post and the short video clip below on the first day of Black History Month 2017, to emphasize that our Black history did not begin with American chattel slavery.

About six years ago, my cousin Dr. Jeffrey Ogbar and I discussed our family connection via my maternal grandmother. During the phone conversation, he told me how his Edwards family knew the name of their "Kunta Kinte." In the 1970s, down in Panola County (Como), Mississippi, his great-uncle, the late Rev. Sidney Edwards, interviewed family elders. They shared with him how the first Edwards was a man named Luke Edwards, who was from Africa. Not only that, family elders had knowledge of his true African name that he told his family - OGBA(R) OGUMBA. I was fascinated to hear this! I was also "green with envy" because this was the type of family history that I longed to have. I remember saying to Cousin Jeff, "Wow! You all are so blessed to have this kind of family history. This is rare!"


The oral history that the late Rev. Sidney Edwards typed in the 1970s.
(Courtesy of Dr. Jeffrey Ogbar)

Fast forward four years later, in June 2015, I finally learned through autosomal DNA (with oral history clues left by family elders) that the father of my mother's paternal grandmother, Sarah Partee Reed (1852-1923) of Tate County, Mississippi, was a man named Prince Edwards (born c. 1830). Read about that discovery HERE. Lo and behold, there's a preponderance of evidence that Grandpa Prince and his brother, Uncle Peter Edwards, were also sons of Ogbar Ogumba! So when Cousin Jeff was relaying his Edwards history to me, it was my history, too . . . . but I didn't know it at the time. I have been able to determine from genealogy research that he was born around 1790.

Based on prior Y-DNA testing, the family has speculated that Ogbar Ogumba may have been from the Gold Coast (present-day Ghana). The Bight of Biafra region (present-day Nigeria, specifically) was also speculated. So while my cousins and I were in Ghana in December, I asked several people about the name. To my surprise, they all proclaimed that "Ogumba" was not a familiar name to Ghana. They claimed its origins to be from the Igbo people of Nigeria. Here's one of the persons I interviewed, as we were standing at Elmina Slave Castle. We are still seeking absolute DNA proof of Ogbar Ogumba's origins. The chances of finding a "paper trail" are extremely slim . . . a miracle! Nonetheless, the Igbo people of Nigeria strongly appear to be his ancestral origins. 



(Excuse my clumsy finger at 1:30.)


Any additional comments regarding Samuel's shirt will be deleted. He is a very nice guy, who worked tirelessly to show us a great time in Ghana. He was very in tune to our history, after listening to us. He did not know that the shirt was offensive. So please do not place any blame or negativity towards him. This illuminates the fact that there needs to be more discussions between Africans and African Americans, to grasp a better understanding of our respective histories on both sides of the Atlantic.